This insect-eating passerine begins breeding when it is 1 year old. The most recent BBS trend analysis (through 2009) uses a hierarchical model approach (Sauer et al. data). Lambert, L.R. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. Endangered (E) 2011). Environment Canada. Sitting on the banks of the Anacostia River this site draws in a diversity of species, from warblers, including hooded warbler, Blackburnian warbler and bay-breasted warbler, to waterbirds, such as yellowlegs, spotted sandpiper, and several varieties of sandpipers collectively known as "peeps" because of their small stature and difficulty differentiating them in the field. Presumably birds are dispersing from some undetermined source population in the core US breeding range, where high densities of Hooded Warblers are present in regions with extensive continuous forest cover (see rescue effect). See Sampling Methods and Effort section for details. The Hooded Warbler is socially monogamous with most breeding males having a single female on their territory. The Hooded Warbler is a large-eyed beauty. Canada’s first Hooded Warbler nest prelude to population expansion of today. 2000; Environment Canada 2011). 3 Click here to hear the call of a Hooded Warbler. Twedt, D.J., J.M. Stansberry, C.D. 2000. Even so, this species often succeeds in raising two broods to fledging in a single breeding season (early May through September in Ontario). 2007. Intruders that are not swayed by visual displays may be chased or attacked. Iverson, A.M. Prasad, S.N. These preferences are not absolute: Hooded Warblers will use forest edges and they can nest successfully in very small forest patches (e.g., <5 ha in Pennsylvania, as small as 10 ha in Ontario) in areas with high regional forest cover (Norris et al. 1985. Loss and degradation of habitat at migration stopover sites and on the wintering grounds are also identified as potential threats but the magnitude of these threats is not known (Chiver et al. 2011). 2006. Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. Stutchbury. Eagles, and F.M. 1986. Blackburnian warbler. At BSC, Heagy is currently the Bird Conservation Biologist and Badzinski is the Ontario Program Manager. Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Population spatial structure and variability, Factors driving the population increase and range expansion, Acknowledgements and authorities contacted, Figure 1. Occupancy of small forest tracts may be ephemeral or intermittent. 2005. Moorman, C.E., D.C. Guynn Jr, and, J.C. Kilgo. Conservation Biology 13(1):58-66. Chapman, and K.V. Sherry, and J. Harris. BBS data have been used to calculate population estimates and population trends at various geographic scales (Rich et al. 2010. 1999. Pairing rates at study sites in Ontario (e.g., 75%, range 60% to 90% at SWCR, BSC unpubl. 2002. 1997; McCracken et al. Version 2009.2. Quantitative information on trends in forest quality is not available, but most forest habitat within the current Ontario breeding range is relatively young; only about 12% of southern Ontario forest is classified as mature, and < 1% is considered old-growth (OMNR 2006). The Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (OBBA) showed a strong population increase, from 21 atlas squares (10 km² survey blocks) with breeding evidence during 1981-85, to 81 squares during 2001-05, although with relatively greater search effort in the second atlas. Forest cover in southern Ontario reached a low of about 10% in 1920, but by 1986 had almost doubled to about 19% due to the regeneration of young forests in areas of marginal farmland (Larson et al. Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina In the forest undergrowth, this skulking warbler seems to call attention to itself by frequently fanning its tail quickly open and shut, flashing the white outer tail feathers. ** Formerly described as “Not In Any Category”, or “No Designation Required.”. 2011). In Ontario, nest predation rates vary considerably from year to year but are generally high, 30-50% (Badzinski 2003; Eng 2007; Melles 2007; Chiver et al. 2011). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. None of the proposed sites with critical habitat are on federal lands (Environment Canada 2011). The small Canadian population is contiguous with much larger breeding populations of the northern United States. Austen, M.J.W., M.D. In the 2002 and 2007 surveys, these “mega-sites” were each split into several smaller parcels and considered as multiple sites. Scientific Name: Setophaga citrina (Boddaert 1783), French Name: Paruline à capuchons Class: Aves. The habitat requirements of the Hooded Warbler in Canada overlap to varying degrees with those of the more than 30 Canadian species at risk associated with Carolinian woodlands in southern Ontario (Jalava et al. 2011). Food supply does not appear to be a limiting factor during the breeding season or during spring and fall migration (Nagy and Smith 1997; Buehler et al. Gipson. Effects of selective logging on breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests in Louisiana. 2007). This estimate is consistent with observations in Ontario and Pennsylvania, with relatively few birds returning for more than 2 consecutive years and about half (23%-60+%) of the known age adults being second-year birds (Evans Ogden and Stutchbury 1996; Rush and Stutchbury 2008; BSC unpubl. Not at Risk (NAR)** 2002. Kingston Field Naturalists, Kingston, Ontario.611 pp. During migration, found in deciduous and mixed eastern forests. Search effort and efficiency has increased over time. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. 2007). 2011). During the mid- to late-20th century, the breeding range of the Hooded Warbler expanded. Stutchbury. The continental Hooded Warbler breeding population is considered adequately monitored by the BBS (Rich et al. Ridgeley, R.S., T.F. Bird Banding Laboratory. Flaxman, M. 2004. Smith. Standardized migration count data from Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN) stations in southern Ontario provide a relatively unbiased measure of long- and short-term population trends in this species in Canada, as suggested by Gartshore (1988). 2011). These directed surveys targeted known and historic locations but some areas of potential habitat were also covered. Sorenson, J.L. 165 pp. Cream-colored with scattered brown spots. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, USA. Iverson, A. Prassad, T.S. 2004. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Howlett, J.S. A female Hooded Warbler banded at the SWCR site in Ontario in July 2000 was at least 11 years old when last re-sighted in July 2009 (BSC unpubl. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. Badzinski, D. S. 2003. The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. After 1985, the number and extent of known breeding occurrences in Ontario surged. Stutchbury, and T.E. Journal of Field Ornithology: 11-20. 2011). 1996. Forest configuration is a concern because of this species’ sensitivity to forest fragmentation effects. 1997. Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. However, habitat degradation at breeding sites and habitat loss and degradation at migration stopover sites and on the wintering grounds are potential threats. Pyle, P. 1997. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. 2009; Melles et al. Ogden, and B.J. Consequently, there are no good estimates of the amount and distribution of potential Hooded Warbler habitat in Ontario. The large SWCR site is on provincial Crown land that has recently been regulated as a Conservation Reserve under the Provincial Parks Act. Friesen, L., M.D. The Hooded Warbler is a long-distance neotropical migrant that breeds in eastern North America, and winters in southern Mexico, Central America and parts of the Caribbean (Figure 1). Species at Risk Act, Statutes of Canada 2002, Chapter 29. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/s-15.3/text.html. Cadman, M.D., P.F.J. Land ownership and habitat protection statistics for the known population overestimate the overall level of protection of the population because survey effort has focused on protected areas and public lands. Species designated at meetings of the full committee are added to the list. Hooded Warblers rarely return to breed at their natal site, whereas adults show relatively strong fidelity to breeding and wintering sites. 2006. In states bordering its Canadian range, the Hooded Warbler is ranked as secure (S5) in New York and Ohio, apparently secure (S4) in Pennsylvania, vulnerable (S3) in Michigan and Minnesota, and imperiled to vulnerable (S2S3) in Wisconsin (NatureServe 2011). Thursday, September 1st It's nice to see that migration is happening and new birds are arriving from up north. and E. Nol. Collins, and E.H. Dunn. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina in Canada. The Hooded Warbler is identified as one of 195 species of Continental Importance in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan because 98% of its global population breeds within the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, and that avifaunal region has a very high stewardship responsibility for the conservation of this species (Rich et al. The Ontario Breeding Bird Atlases provide snapshots of the Canadian breeding distribution of Hooded Warblers for two periods: 1981-85 (OBBA1) and 2001-05 (OBBA2), respectively (Cadman et al. In Ontario, the Endangered Species Act, 2007 does not provide habitat protection for this Special Concern species, although its habitat is eligible as significant wildlife habitat. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. COSEWIC. A small breeding population in the Ganaraska Forest (mostly in Durham Region) in south-central Ontario, 200 km northeast of Norfolk County, has been studied since it was first reported in 2006 (Walters and Nol 2011). Sauer, J.R., J.E. 2004. 2011. 2002; Eng 2007; Chiver et al. Ontario Birds 6(3):84-99. It appears that a greater proportion of the population uses the shorter Gulf of Mexico crossing in spring migration than in fall, and that adults are more likely than immature birds to cross the Gulf in the fall (Chiver et al. Snell, and H.G. 1985; Stutchbury 1994; Conway et al. Nest success, fledgling survival, and habitat selection of Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) in partially harvested forest fragments. The breeding status of the Hooded Warbler in Canada before 1949 remains uncertain, but given the northward range expansion in the global range, it seems likely that the breeding range of this species first expanded into Canada during the early 20th century. The lower value of 1000 individuals is very conservative and assumes that the 2007 survey included >85% of the total population (i.e., detected all or most of the territorial birds at the sites that were covered, few or no birds were present elsewhere) and that the population has been stable since 2007. The grey lines delineate the boundaries of the Carolinian, Lake Simcoe-Rideau, and Southern Shield ecological regions (from south to north). COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. Winter territory size varies with habitat but is typically small, e.g., 0.3 to 0.4 ha (Stutchbury 1994; Chiver et al. Unknown, but much greater than threshold level of 10 locations. 1995). COSEWIC -- Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 19 pp. website: http://www.fs.fed.us/atlas/bird/mcdd_6840.html [accessed September 2010]. 1991. Bay-breasted warbler. Kennedy, A. Martell, A. Panjabi, D.N. Explore Birds of the World to learn more. Recent changes (AOU 2011) have now placed Hooded Warbler within the genus formerly known as Dendroica; now named Setophaga. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Partners in Flight (PIF) Landbird Population Estimate Database [accessed 25 October 2010]. Males use mature forests while females utilize scrubbier forests and seasonally flooded areas. All confirmed and probable Canadian breeding records fall within the Mixedwood Plain Ecozone, with the majority concentrated in the Carolinian biogeographic region. Although a similar strategy was used for each of these coordinated surveys, there were differences in the amount and distribution of survey effort. The Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (OBBA) mapping (Figure 2) provides a good representation of the current Canadian range, and also illustrates the significant increase in the species’ distribution in Ontario over the 20-year interval between the first (OBBA1, 1981-85) and second (OBBA2, 2001-05) atlases (Badzinski 2007; Blancher et al. Version 3.23.2011. 2000. data). Revised edition. 2007). American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pp. The BBS has been run annually in the US since 1966 and in Canada since 1968. Fall Migration is underway and while your seed birdfeeders will typically slow down now through October birdwatching in the area will be significantly more interesting. 2004). 2009). Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. 19 pp. Tail looks white, seen from below. There is no evidence of population structuring within the Canadian or North American population of this species. Stutchbury, B.J.M. In prep. Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R. On close examination, retained juvenile flight feathers can be used to reliably distinguish most young birds (of either sex) through to the end of their first breeding season (Pyle 1997; Chiver et al. 1989; Freemark and Collins 1992; Norris et al. Bradstreet, G.S. Within southern Ontario, most of the increase in forest cover has occurred in southeastern Ontario and elsewhere in the Lake Simcoe-Rideau region, which now has 35% forest cover (and 56% agriculture) (OMNR 2006). Ulyshen. Parasitism rates are highest early in the breeding season and late nests are infrequently parasitized (Badzinski and Calvert in prep.). Overall forest cover in southern Ontario has increased from historic lows and this species has recently expanded north and east into parts of southern Ontario with greater forest cover (see Habitat trends, and Canadian range). 2002; Eng 2007; Walters and Nol 2011; BSCunpub. By the end of OBBA1, it was clear that Hooded Warbler was a rare but regular breeding species in Ontario and it was suggested that the species “probably always bred in southern Ontario in small numbers but generally escaped notice” (Sutherland and Gartshore 1987). It is also listed as Special Concern under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007. 1992. 140/2005. Journal of Avian Biology 36:471-477. DRAFT National Recovery Strategy for Carolinian Woodlands and Associated Species at Risk: Phase 1. Extinct (X) Reason for designation In Canada, the range and abundance of this forest-nesting species have increased substantially since the species was last assessed. Version 2010.3. Changes in abundance vary regionally and are generally consistent with the pattern of distribution change depicted in the atlas mapping (Figure 2). Birds of the Kingston Region, 2nd Edition. Moorman, C.E., L.T. The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat. and B.J.M. Available [accessed 30 April 2011]. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(5):1416-1424. There was a significant increase of >400% in the probability of observation for this species between atlases, with the number of 10 km x 10 km atlas squares with Hooded Warbler breeding evidence increasing from 21 during OBBA1 to 81 during OBBA2 (Badzinski 2007). Stephenson, T. and S. Whittle (2013). Thompson III. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources [accessed December 2010]. No biochemical or genetic studies are available. Ottawa. BirdLife International. Estimated percent increase in total number of mature individuals over any 10 year period, over a time period including both the past and the future. 1995). data). Suitable canopy gaps can be created by natural tree-fall, timber harvesting using single-tree or group selective cutting methods, or thinning of mature pine plantations (Gartshore 1988; Whittam et al. Day 3 / April 29 – Dry Tortugas Sunny ENE 12-18 The Hooded Warbler population in Canada continues to be concentrated in Norfolk County, where survey counts have at least doubled every 5 years. BBS routes consist of 50 roadside points along randomly selected, stratified routes across the United States and southern Canada. 2009; Chiver et al. Population counts for this species are confounded by increases in search effort and efficiency over time but the population has at least doubled over the past decade. Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Creating a bird-friendly backyard can provide excellent stopover habitat to support warblers as they migrate to and from the breeding grounds. At SWCR, single-brooded pairs that are parasitized have the lowest seasonal productivity (0.8 nestlings surviving to 5 days post-hatch), compared to double-brooded pairs that are not parasitized (5.2 day-5 nestlings) (Badzinski and Calvert in prep). BBS population trends for Pennsylvania and Ohio, respectively, are 3.9 and 6.1%/yr for 1966-2009, and 4.4 and 6.4%/yr for 1999-2009 and are statistically significant (Sauer et al. This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. Lutmerding, J. Ontario Birds 29:88-103. Cover illustration/photo: Hooded Warbler -- Photo: Ron Kingswood. Pond, A.C. Couturier, E.H. Dunn, C.M. Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part 1: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Available population models are limited by the lack of information on the scope and scale of dispersal movements, especially the lack of quantitative measures of adult emigration rates (see dispersal and migration). Nesting success and nest-site selection by a neotropical migrant in a fragmented landscape. 32-48 In Cadman, M.D., D.A. Sutherland, G.G. 2011). 2017. and B.J. Small changes in the large US Hooded Warbler population could have a significant ripple effect on the small Canadian population. and K.G. Pitcher, D.R. 2008. Poleward shifts in breeding bird distribution in New York State. On the wintering grounds, some individuals establish and maintain exclusive feeding territories throughout the winter period from September – March (Lynch et al. Quantitative information on dispersal and emigration rates is not available, but is thought to be highly important to this species’ population dynamics (see also Dispersal and Migration). 2000; Parker et al. Not all routes have been surveyed continuously for the entire period. Two studies at sites in Pennsylvania and Ontario found fledgling survival is low in the first few days after leaving the nest, with 19% and 49% of the tracked fledglings surviving to independence (Eng 2007; Rush and Stutchbury 2008; Chiver et al. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, NY, USA. The Hooded Warbler’s Canadian breeding distribution is restricted to southern Ontario, where it is considered a rare to locally uncommon breeder (Godfrey 1986; James 1991; Badzinski 2007). 2011). 1994; Weir 2008). 82 pp. A strong spatial correlation between Hooded Warbler occurrences in Ontario and areas with sand deposits and sandy soils was first noticed in the 1980s (Gartshore 1988). For example, Melles (2007, 2011) found that the cooler temperatures were positively related to a lack of range expansion and that the number of extreme weather days in July was an important predictor of Hooded Warbler presence in Ontario. In Pennsylvania, typical territory size in a high density situation was 75 m x 75 m (mean=0.85 ha, range 0.4-2.5 ha, N=47), compared to territories exceeding 150 m x 150 m (2.25 ha) in low density situations (Howlett and Stutchbury 1997; Tarof et al. 2007. Survey effort at most other sites was similar in all surveys (Heagy and Badzinski 2008). 2009. data). General Technical Report NE-318. Sutherland, D.A. Although subjective, these assumptions seem reasonable given the extent of known and suitable habitat not checked in 2007, and available population trend information for Ontario (see Fluctuations and trends) and adjacent jurisdictions (see Rescue effect). Data Deficient (DD)*** Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). Iverson, and A.M. Prasad. Couturier (eds.). Conversely, some studies have found that selective logging, insect outbreaks, and severe weather events that open the forest canopy can increase local Hooded Warbler breeding densities (see Breeding Habitat requirements). Condor 102:595-600. 2000). 2007). Annand, E.M. and F.R. ; Chiver et al. Status report on the Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina, in Canada. Chiver, I., L.J. 1994. Habitat degradation has also been identified as a concern as this species requires mature forest and is adversely affected by forest fragmentation (see Breeding habitat requirements, and life cycle and reproduction). 706 pp. 1988. National Recovery Plan No. 128 pp. The count of 436 territories reported in 2007 is almost five times the 88+ known territories reported in 1997, just 10 years earlier. Conservation Biology 15(3):729-736. The Hooded Warbler feeds mostly on insects, small spiders and other arthropods in all seasons (Chiver et al. It appears that the current population in Canada may already have achieved the population objective set in the proposed Recovery Strategy, specifically, of having 500 breeding pairs distributed within the species’ current Ontario range (Environment Canada 2011). Hetzel, J.M. Projected percent increase in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years. 2011). The breeding range of this species has been expanding northwards for at least 40 years. Francis, and M.E. Woodsworth, B.T. Determinants of between-season site, territory, and mate fidelity in Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina). 706 pp. Canopy gap habitat can be accurately identified using fine spatial resolution Ikonos imagery but this approach is cost-prohibitive at a larger scale (Pasher et al. Thus, the IAO of all known breeding occurrences during 2001-2010 is 860 km². A List of Municipalities with Bylaws, Ontario Woodlot Association, updated August 2010. Adult males have a black hood and bib that contrast with the yellow mask over the forehead, eye, and cheek. Sutherland, pers. Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. If source-sink population dynamics are occurring at the continental scale, then small changes in the productivity of source populations in the US could have large impacts on the trajectory of the small Canadian population (Environment Canada 2011). However, the effort measures reported in later surveys included multiple visits to SWCR and some other sites as part of intensive nest monitoring projects. 2004; Schwartz et al. Auk 119 (2):528-532. This small yellow songbird is readily identified by its distinctive plumage and vocalizations. Black-throated gray warbler. 2007. Rodenhouse, N.L., S.N. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 13:517-540. 2012. None of the proposed critical habitat is on federal lands. 60 pp. 2011). Scarr, T.A., K.L. 2007. Population dynamics of a threatened neotropical migrant at the edge of its range. Winters in southern Mexico and Central America. In Ontario, Hooded Warblers consistently chose nest sites in areas within the forest with dense vegetation (often raspberry or blackberry brambles, Rubus spp.) Nest site characteristics of Hooded Warblers at the northern edge of their breeding range. Allnut, T. Brooks, D.K. Planning decisions requiring municipal approval must be consistent with the PPS. Fleischer. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science 65(1):21-26. Hooded Warblers are common in moist leafy woodlands of the Southeast.. Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) Status: Vagrant. Hooded Warblers typically lay 3 or 4 eggs in cup-shaped nests, 1 m from the ground, that are frequently parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds. 1994. The Canadian breeding distribution is restricted to southern Ontario, where it is considered to be a rare or locally uncommon breeder. Melles, S.J. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Changes in wintering distribution have not been documented. Food supply and parental feeding rates of Hooded Warbler in forest fragments. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, ON. Various demographic studies in Ontario (and also in northwestern Pennsylvania) found evidence of depressed productivity and survival, leading to the suggestion that Hooded Warbler populations in fragmented landscapes at the northern range periphery may be population sinks, where local productivity is not sufficient to offset adult mortality/dispersal (Eng 2007; Rush and Stutchbury 2008; Chiver et al. In the fall, this warbler may not be much to look at—its striking bright white-and-black pattern is dulled by the olives, grays, and yellows that make up its fall and winter plumage. 2009. pp. Endangered Species Act 2007. The 2001-05 EO is more than double the comparable figure calculated using OBBA1 data from 1981-85. 2009). The effects of selective logging on nest-site selection and productivity of hooded warblers (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada. Males and females both engage in extra-territorial forays to seek out extra-pair copulations with neighbours (Chiver et al. 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