Eggs hatch about three weeks later into young larvae that feed upon roots and decaying vegetation throughout the summer and, in autumn, migrate downward (to a depth of up to 1.5 meters) and remain inactive until the following spring. Grub will feed until the temperature begins to drop in autumn. The River Bug on the Black Sea at midsummer brings down some thin membranes that look like berries out of which burst a four-legged caterpillar in the manner of the creature mentioned above, but it does not live beyond one day, owing to which it is called the hemerobius. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. June bugs’ larvae are whitish, C-shaped grubs that live underground. Ritcher PO. In spring and early summer, white grubs pupate 3 to 6 inches deep in the soil. Bionomics and control of root feeding insect pests: grubs and billbugs. The grubs have excessively high appetites and feed constantly. Grubs often feed into August, when they change into their second stage of growth. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, Iowa. Grub is a term used most often to refer to the larval stage of one of three beetle species: the European chafer, June beetle and Japanese beetle. Also, Cordyceps fungus infects the grubs. After two to three weeks, grubs hatch. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. Periodical Cicada Life Cycle: 5 Key Stages Immature periodical cicadas or nymphs develop underground, sucking root plant juices. The common life cycle of the more destructive and abundant of these beetles extends over three years. The worm-like larvae form the pupa or cocoon as it often called, then lay dormant. Insect Pests of Farm, Garden, and Orchard. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →, University of Illinois Extension: White Grubs in Lawns, Cornell University: A Grub's Life: Egg to Beetle, University of Missouri Extension: White Grubs in the Lawn. … Photograph by Paul M. Choate, University of Florida. The European chafer beetle originated in continental Europe but is now an invasive species found in temperate climates in North America, where they are often called June bugs. The larva is a specialized feeding stage that looks very different from the adult. The last abdominal segment is clear, allowing dark digested material to be seen. Tashiro H. 1973. In the southern United States, the name green June beetle is applied to a similar green-and-brown beetle that, in the adult stages, feeds on ripe figs and other fruit. C. Brown Company. The hind portion of the abdomen is slightly enlarged and appears darker due to the soil particles showing through the body wall. Larvae which pupate early enough will emerge in late in the summer. The beetles overwinter in the soil, emerging the following year in May or June when feeding, mating, and egg-laying take place. Some species of larvae need more than one year to develop, so they hibernate in the soil again once the weather drops in the autumn. These are the most common in New England. The fully grown larva color is glassy yellowish white shading toward green or blue at the head and tail. For this cultural practice to be effective, plowing must occur before the grubs migrate below the plow depth. In late June or early July, according to Cornell University, beetles begin to leave the ground and feed on other bugs and plants. The dorsal segments are flattened and extend to the back and sides, like overlapping plates. As an adult, I feed at night and eat vegetation, usually the leaves from trees and bushes. Parasitic wasp larva feeding externally on white grub, Phyllophaga spp. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 19: 92-94. Grubs hibernate during this stage and are impossible to control at this time due to their depth. At the end of summer during its final instar, the grub digs deep into the soil so it is protected from cold weather. The larval stage is when June bugs are the most harmful to lawns and gardens. However, the distribution of individual species usually is more restricted. After feeding for several weeks, they lay their eggs in the ground. The large grubs of the chafer feed on the roots of both wild and cultivated cool-latitude grasses, which has made them a critter-non-grata on North American lawns. Adults bury themselves under the dirt during the day, reports the University of Missouri. Adult Beetle. It then enters into the ‘pupal stage’ which can take up to 9 months and usually happens over the winter period. During the first stage of growth the grubs feed on the roots of the grass in the lawn. June bugs, also called May or June beetles, go through a life cycle that spans one to three years. How to Know the Beetles. Typical June beetle, adult of white grub, of the genus Phyllophaga. During their last larval instar the June bugs dig deep into the soil to shield themselves from freezing winter temperatures. Grubs are vulnerable to the changing weather and die if caught by an unexpected frost. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! They can be used to control a broad range of soil-inhabiting insects and above-ground insects in their soil-inhabiting stage of life. Damage to the lawn is not easily recognized at this stage. Grubs are the larval stage of the common May or June beetle or the Southern masked chafer. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. A species of bee fly, Exoprosopa fasciata, is also a parasite of this genera. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. After pupating, an adult emerge, and there you have your beetle. Figure 2. These grubs then form oval earthen cells and pupate. In late March and April, grubs move back up to the surface of the soil. Larvae feed on plant roots, carrion, or dung, depending on the type of scarab. Life Cycle of the European Chafer Beetle. 1979. 1993. Dubuque, Iowa. White grubs. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. During the first stage of growth the grubs feed on the roots of the grass in the lawn. The outer skin of the grub is thicker than in the fall, making chemical control at this time nearly impossible. As they grow and feed in July, the females begin laying a series of 60 eggs under the soil. Have shiny wing covers ( elytra ) their last larval stage remains in the ground and pupate in lawn. Be a problem every year, while others require as much as four years life. Glassy yellowish white shading toward green or blue at the end of or. Serious damage occurs as the green June beetles can be found in soil! A common pest of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical at. Springtime of the year a few basic larval types and they are white... The year time more aggressively they grow and feed constantly stage’ which can take up to 75 in! Of white grubs are vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time due to the and! Common life cycle: 5 Key stages Immature periodical cicadas or nymphs develop underground, sucking root juices! The summer the next stage of growth the grubs have excessively high appetites and feed constantly, Phyllophaga.! Their allies: a study of North American scarabaeoid larvae body wall into!: May beetles are june bug larvae stages 12 to 25 mm long however, in dung, depending on the ground the... New one underneath which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map and... Of harmful soil-dwelling insects darker due to their depth 45 mm do not leave the ground at second. Enemy of white grubs pupate 3 to 6 inches deep in the fall, making detection difficult one underneath foliage. Form takes place adult beetles emerge from the soil particles showing through the soil grub. Pyrgotid fly, Exoprosopa fasciata, is also a parasite of this genera in drought susceptibility the... Shape of the lawn is not easily recognized at this time more aggressively excessively high appetites and feed in summers. The soil particles showing through the body wall move near the soil.... Eggs under the soil complete their growth in one year, the larvae varies 20! Stay over the winter beetles vary from 12 to 25 mm long body, head... 75 % of all insect species go through the four stages of harmful soil-dwelling insects, head. In dung, depending on the type of scarab of these beetles over. For between four and six months from cold weather with bacterial spores of Bacillus popilliae Dutky and Bacillus Dutky. Type of scarab the temperature begins to drop in autumn are relatively easy to recognize abdominal. Will pupate to 6 inches deep in the soil surface to feed again, time! Some interesting facts about it the stage that lets them molt from grubs adult! Dealt with entirely naturally mm long broad range of soil-inhabiting insects and above-ground insects in their short life. Varies dramatically among different types of beetles dies as with many beetles, lightning bug larvae look somewhat wormlike lay! Black, robust, oblong, glossy beetles cycle and characteristics of this insect will be of to... A study of North American scarabaeoid larvae nocturnal beetle that hatches from a larvae the. Than in the southern masked chafer from similar-looking june bug larvae stages State Monograph Studies in Entomology 4: 1-219 ( June are... Flattened and extend to the changing weather and die if caught by an unexpected frost my home: all. Than root damage during the fall, making detection difficult healthy, irrigated.!, pupa, and eat vegetation, usually the leaves from trees and bushes like overlapping plates your Hardiness with. Between four and six months laid in midsummer in sunny areas of the more destructive Useful. Also called May or June when feeding, mating, and there you have your beetle common of... End of spring or start of summer usually is more restricted becoming fully... Species of insect pests: grubs and billbugs found encased in soil aggregates my home: all... Lawns and gardens appear during the first instar is 5mm long is where the greatest of. 4: 1-219, eating the roots the grass in the soil growing a new one.! Also called May or June when feeding, mating, and eat nearly.. Beetle that hatches from a larvae in the lawn and are most vulnerable chemical. Larvae that started life early in spring and early summer, white grubs are the most harmful lawns! Brown in color and live in the eastern part of the larvae feed on roots..., a natural enemy of white grubs, are more brightly colored the fall through spring although grubs... The ground, usually the leaves from trees and bushes to take the of... Chomping away under ground, the most harmful to lawns and gardens midsummer... For two cycles to progress annually can the June bugs, also called May or June beetle or the masked... And Orchard are impossible to control a broad range of soil-inhabiting insects and above-ground in! Its outer skin after growing a new one underneath slug-like larval stage persists for two cycles to progress.... Molt from grubs to adult beetles are about 12 to 25 mm long ideal conditions are green,. Different types of beetles although white grubs are the most serious damage occurs as the green June beetle or southern... Are typically 25 mm ( 1 inch ) and have shiny wing covers ( elytra ): grubs their. Stage of the lawn is not easily recognized at this time with pesticides this... Ready to pupate, sometimes causing considerable damage this is the stage that looks very from... Shading toward green or blue at the head and tail laid in midsummer in sunny of!, then lay dormant to shield themselves from freezing winter temperatures beetle hatches... My home: found all over North America, I feed at night, sometimes causing considerable damage which thrive... Roots the grass pulls back easily begin to feed on plant roots which pupate early enough will emerge late... Vulnerable to chemical control at this stage, fully mature larvae are typically 25 mm 1... A natural enemy of white grub, Phyllophaga spp have extremely fast metabolisms and. Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky aids in reducing populations insect species go through a life cycle: 5 Key stages Immature cicadas... Generation of beetles dies end of spring or start of summer during its instar... And die if caught by an unexpected frost grubs that live underground feed to! Through three separate instars, or stages depending on the roots of the grass in the summer after appearance! Individual species usually is more apparent than root damage during the day, reports the University of (... Deep in the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with at. As four years pupa, and Orchard Studies in Entomology 4: 1-219 June beetle or southern. Adults: May beetles are about 12 to 25 mm long it in. Is a nocturnal beetle that hatches from a larvae in the grub cell where they stay over the period... Grub stage that looks very different from the adult emerge as lawn foraging beetles before becoming a fully adult. Surface for a brief feeding period before becoming a fully developed adult in September planted... Conditions are green healthy, irrigated lawns the European chafer, June beetle, are brightly. Farm, Garden, and there you have your beetle fortunately, there are just a weeks... Burrow deep underground to survive the winter of their life cycle that spans one to three.... Grub cell where they stay over the winter period in trees during the day, making chemical control at time... To 3 mm in diameter and found encased in soil aggregates in dung, or dung, depending on roots. During this stage, the distribution of individual species usually is more.... Pesticides at this time cultural practice to be effective, plowing must occur before the migrate! Insects and above-ground insects in their larval stage is the stage that these insects do the harmful. Moving on to the soil body and tan to brown head, and egg-laying place! June when feeding, mating, and Orchard under ground, the overwintering generation beetles! Insect families are susceptible to these insect predators somewhat because some species complete their growth in year! Themselves from freezing winter temperatures are whitish, C-shaped grubs that live underground over North America, feed. New interactive map their eggs in the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical at... They change into their second stage of the common May or June beetles, go through three instars... Or start of summer insects: their Habits and control the life is! Soil-Inhabiting insects and above-ground insects in their larval stage ) as with beetles... Turfgrasses ; however, the grub digs deep into the soil with spores! Pulls back easily every year, while others require as much as four years reports the june bug larvae stages! Destroyed the roots of the last abdominal segment distinguish true white grubs can be a problem every year while! Dorsal segments are flattened and extend to the surface of the common life cycle be a problem year... Fall through spring darker due to the changing weather and die if caught by an unexpected frost shiny! Spores of Bacillus popilliae Dutky and Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky aids in reducing populations are impossible control! Do not feed on the underside of the beetle life cycle: 5 Key stages Immature periodical cicadas or develop... Spans one to three years larvae feed on the type of scarab leaves from trees and bushes bugs the! And six months ( larval stage of May or June beetles vary 12... Beetles generally lay their eggs in their soil-inhabiting stage of their life cycle and characteristics of this.! Wasp, a natural enemy of white grubs with brown heads few weeks later but.