Below: 1st photo - Plains Cottonwood leaves have long pointed tips and straight to heart-shaped bases, curved (slightly hooked) coarse teeth on the margin and a slender flattened stalk that has 2 glands at the base. 2nd photo - in the early spring, in process of elongation. Wide, triangular shaped green leaves turn yellow in the fall. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. deltoides. The crown is open and spreading with slightly drooping stout branches. Details Here. It will tolerate a wide range of soils as long as they are well-drained. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. From the roots and trunks to the leaves and fruits, the locals used different parts of these trees for various purposes to satisfy different needs. Trees need to be about 10 to 15 years of age to produce seed. Catkins are also called 'aments'. North Dakota tree handbook. The species is divided into three subspecies or up to five varieties. Flowers are in 2 to 3 inch drooping catkins. Within Minnesota, it is found in most counties with a few scattered exceptions, mostly absent in the NE section. are native along many streams and rivers in the Western United States. According to the county sign installed in the visitors’ viewing area, the plains cottonwood typically is a quick growing, short-lived tree with a life expectancy of about 90 years. Peterson / USDA NRCS PLANTS Database. The plains cottonwood is a Colorado native tree but, while it grows in our area, it’s considered native to the lower elevations of the state and is typically found in elevations between 3,500 to 6,500 feet. It is located about a mile from Hygiene, Colorado on closed property maintained by Boulder county Parks and Open Space. No other tree approaches its stature on the grasslands that sweep five hundred miles from the ninety-eighth meridian to the foot of the Rockies. A broad, irregularly rounded canopy with coarse, spreading branches. Many species and hybrids have wood with a variety of uses, including for matches and matchboxes. plains cottonwood tree As a breeze picks up in the night air, leaves from every treetop near and far rustle together to render soft, swishing sounds. The subspecies classification is as follows: During the tough years living in wild prairie plains where trees were a rarity, Native Americans derived great benefits from the cottonwood trees that would grow in the harsh conditions nonetheless. Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. Return to -- Site Plan/Archive Index --or-- List of Common Plant Names -- or -- List of Scientific Names -- or --Home Page - - - Back to top. Look for the following signs to confirm the existence of a western cottonwood tree. Below: 1st photo - The fertile female catkins develop a number of green 4-chambered seed capsules, each of which can have 28 to 40 seeds. Cottonwood trees in autumn; Edness K. Wilkins State Park, Wyoming. wislizeni. The species, deltoides, is from the Greek letter 'Delta' and refers to the delta shape of the leaf. Other massive 5 to 6-ft driver bottom specimens are not uncommon. Great Plains cottonwood (P. sargentii), of North America, has thick coarse-toothed leaves. Notes: Plains Cottonwood is considered indigenous to the Garden area and Susan Wilkins added some young plants in 2011 to enhance the tree canopy in the woodland area. Plains Cottonwood Facts The plains cottonwood is a large, fast-growing, short-lived tree of the Great Plains and eastern border of the Rocky Mountains. The crown is open and spreading with slightly drooping stout branches. The buds are large, about 3/4 inch long and covered with several green-brown resinous scales. Flowers: Catkins, male-female on separate trees. Twigs are very stout, brownish, with slight angles. Flowers appear before the leaves and are wind pollinated. Branches that fall into water will grow roots and shoots that will capable of becoming another tree. The catkin stalks are of uniform length. The largest known Plains Cottonwood tree is more than 300 years old, 36 feet around and 105 feet tall. The subspecies monilifera is found in North America in the Great Plains region and somewhat eastward, but not into the southern states where the dominant subspecies is subsp. All State Trees. The leaf tapers to a long pointed tip. 2nd photo - twigs have slight angles and green-brown resinous buds. Hardy to -40°F Maximum Elevation: 7,000 Feet. Cottonwood Pole Planting Guide. They are related to poplars and aspens. Habitat: Plains Cottonwood in its native habitat is found in moist bottomlands. There are reports of stands in several states further east but this range excludes the southern states and New England. Then the capsule splits and releases 7 to 10 seeds per ovary chamber; the seeds are attached to white cotton-like hair and are dispersed far and wide by the wind in early summer. Also known as Fremont cottonwood or Rio Grande cottonwood, this tree is commonly found near water bodies of arid regions. The bark is smooth when young, light gray to yellow-green, turning gray with age becoming very thick, rough, and deeply furrowed. "www.friendsofthewildflowergarden.org". Plains Cottonwood David F. Van Haverbeke Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. These trees can be enormous in size and prune themselves, sometimes dropping Cadillac size branches. deltoides, that is called Eastern Cottonwood, but is not native to Minnesota. From left to right: plains cottonwood, narrowleaf cottonwood, and lanceleaf cottonwood leaves on branches About All Cottonwood Trees Cottonwood trees are a common street tree and are the largest native broadleaf trees in Colorado. Members of the willow family, cottonwoods are named for the cotton-like mass of hairs surrounding their seeds. The Plains Cottonwood is a large native deciduous tree forming a tall trunk, up to 100 feet high and diameters often larger than 4 feet. Lanceleaf Cottonwood Tree; Narrowleaf Cottonwood Tree; Plains Cottonwood Tree; Great Plains Cottonwood Tree; Rio Grande Cottonwood Tree, a deciduous poplar of the willow family; Swamp Cottonwood Tree; Parry's Cottonwood Tree; Cottonwood Tree: Facts, Info on the Cottonwood Trees. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee. The color is red to yellow and each small flower on the catkin has a saucer shape basal disk with 30 to 40 stamens. Cottonwood trees are also large shade trees and their sprawling branches have a spread of up to 113 ft. (34 m). The Plains cottonwood is the great tree of the American prairies. Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. Bark: Yellowish-green and smooth on young trees but deeply furrowed in maturity. Below: 1st photo - is the typical rough and deeply furrowed bark of cottonwood trunks, - 2nd photo - frequently the trough of the furrow is lighter color. It is the state tree for Wyoming, Kansas and Nebraska. [Cotton for clothing comes from the true cotton plant (Gossypium sp. Leaves are triangular, 3 to 7 inches long and 3 to 5 inches wide, alternate, simple, with long pointed tips and straight to heart-shaped bases and curved (slightly hooked) coarse teeth on the margin. United States, ND. Below: A leaf comparison of the four Minnesota native species of Populus plus the introduced P. alba. Rich green, wide, triangular- shaped leaves turn yellow in … The statute was amended in 1961 to change the scientific name to: Populus deltoides variety monilifera. They are shiny green on top, pale green under, and have a long slender, flattened stalk which has 2 round glands on the top side. Each leaf is about 6 inches long and 4 inches wide. See All State Trees | National Tree. Smooth, grayish bark becomes deeply grooved and darker as it ages. monilifera, which is called the Plains Cottonwood. It has 0 leaf glands and winter buds with hair. Photo of cottonwood seeds by Steve Hurst / USDA/NRCS Plants Database. (Noncommercial Use Permitted with Attribution), Source | Reference Links | Additional Resources. Lombardy poplar (P. nigra) is a columnar form that is much planted. Seed germinates immediately. A crushed twig has a bitter aspirin taste. It is the state tree of Wyoming. Cottonwood … Trees require full sun and are generally shade intolerant. In the U.S. the range is from the Rocky Mountain states of Montana south to New Mexico eastward as far as Texas and Oklahoma and then up to Missouri, Illinois and Wisconsin. In 1765 he became “The King’s Botanist” for North America. Female catkins (pistillate) appear singly or in opposite pairs, are green and the individual small flowers are stalked. Seed: After pollination, the female catkins elongate up to 6 inches in length and the fertilized flowers produce an elliptical seed capsule, green initially, turning brown. The tree in the 2nd & 3rd photos, has a single trunk. Male catkins (staminate) are in clusters of 2 to 4 at the branch tips. There is another subspecies, subsp. The seeds are very small, 1mm wide by 4 mm long, which is quite remarkable considering that they can become one of the largest trees in North America, up to 100 ft. high with massive trunks over 5 … Deciduous Tree Type: Shade Tree: Tree Habit: Round, Pyramidal, Dense Branching: Mature Size (generic) Large individuals can reach over 130 ′ in height. The plains cottonwood is a large, fast-growing, short-lived tree of the Great Plains and eastern border of the Rocky Mountains. Below: Female aments starting to elongate. His work was not complete and was amended by ‘Marshall’ which refers to Humphry Marshall (1722-1801), American Botanist, who published in 1785 - Arboretum Americanum: The American Grove, an Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States. The largest known specimen in Minnesota (2020) is in Chippewa County - height 106 feet, crown spread 110 feet, circumference 394 inches. This is why the common name of Plains Cottonwood is preferred. Wood is used in commercial production of things such as wooden pallets and paper. But nothing sounds quite like the whisper of a plains cottonwood’s glossy, shimmering leaves sighing in the wind, as if … Plains Cottonwood does not sucker; it can re-sprout from a stump but not vigorously but is a vigorous self-seeder. There are only four species of Populus that are native and commonly found in Minnesota: P. balsamifera, Balsam Poplar; P. deltoides, Plains Cottonwood; P. grandidentata, Bigtooth Aspen; and P. tremuloides, Quaking Aspen. Both show the open crown. Usage Requirements. It is fast growing, in fact the fastest growing tree in North America, growing 6 ′ to 12 ′ per year under favorable conditions. These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America… Members of the willow family, cottonwoods are named for the cottonlike mass of hairs surrounding their seeds. The Plains Cottonwood is a large native deciduous tree forming a tall trunk, up to 100 feet high and diameters often larger than 4 feet. It has leaf tips that are very short pointed, either 0 or 3 to 6 leaf stalk glands, winter buds without hair, and the catkin stalks are longer and not of uniform length. wislizeni. These trees have a widespread foliage that can extend to 5 feet in diameter. These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m). Two others are reported: One is a native cross - P. X jackii, Jack's Cottonwood, which is usually sterile [The DNR does not track county populations of it]; and the other is the introduced P. alba, White Poplar. They have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall. The later leaves will be different in size and number of teeth and are the last to fall from the tree in Autumn. ), not the cottonwood tree.] Plains cottonwood ranges from Alberta east to Quebec and south to Rocky Mountain foothills, the Great Plains, Pennsylvania, the Texas panhandle, and New Mexico [ 55, 88, 147, 173, 194 ]. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. I'm waiting for leaf fall at the tree at my work so I can take cuttings and put them in the pond. Here is some detailed information on the cottonwood tree. Both male and female catkins have (+ or -) 15 to 40 individual flowers. They have a basal disk, a 4 chambered ovary and pistil with 2 to 4 flattened stigmata. One of the cultivated male varieties, “Straight Plains” or ‘Jeronimus’ cottonwood keeps a straight main leader, is tolerant of many soil types and conditions, and can make a nice shade tree in landscapes that provide enough room for this tree to mature. Plains cottonwood tree leaves; photo ©J.S. The plains cottonwood is the western subspecies of the Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Plains Cottonwood Trees (populus deltoides): the greenish-yellow bark of the young tree becomes rough and dark gray as it gets older. Mature trees in the state are usually 60 ′ to 80 ′ tall and up to 36 ″ in diameter at breast height. Western Cottonwood Tree Identification. Identification booklet for most of the flowering forbs and small flowering shrubs of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden. He sent many plants to Europe, including many to Linnaeus who considered him the ‘greatest natural botanist is the world'. References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. As with most trees, all leaves will be slightly variable in shape and size on the same tree. Male Catkins: Below 1st photo - the catkin prior to elongation. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC). They are related to poplars and aspens. Cottonwood trees are species of poplar trees belonging to the genus Populus. The Plains Cottonwood, (Populus deltoids occidentalis,) was adopted as Wyoming state tree on February 1, 1947. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. Cottonwood trees (Populus spp.) The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. Flowers: Cottonwood is dioecious, that is male and female flowers occur on separate trees. Colorado's major tree species include bristlecone pine, Colorado blue spruce, Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, limber pine, lodgepole pine, narrowleaf cottonwood, quaking aspen, piñon pine, plains cottonwood, ponderosa pine, Rocky Mountain juniper, subalpine fir and white fir. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Male Catkins: Below- 1st photo - partially elongated catkin; 2nd photo - the male flowers just emerging; 3rd photo - The male flowers fully developed with the stamens on filaments from the basal disc of the flower. It is the big tree on the banks of the mightiest rivers of the great plains, and the on the smallest streams. The Plains cottonwood is the great tree of the American prairies. Above: Various tree shapes of Cottonwood. Identification: This deciduous hardwood tree is the most massive tree in Minnesota. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. The fruits split open when ripe and cotton-like material comes out carrying the seeds. The Plains Cottonwood tree (Populus sargenti) also known as the Poplar is a tall tree named for its cotton-like seeds. Photo Nov. 10, 2017 near the Rio Grande River at Bernado NM. See Reference List for details. Names: The genus Populus is the Latin name for the Poplar. Wyoming designated the plains cottonwood as official state tree in 1947. Minnesota's champion tree cottonwood measures a whopping 10-ft diameter at breast height. Below: The brilliant fall color of a Rio Grande Cottonwood, P. deltoides subsp. See All State Trees - National Tree. Other sources by specific reference. Members of the willow family, cottonwoods are named for the cotton-like mass of hairs surrounding their seeds. A database that provides information on more than 200 native tree and shrub species, and on almost 300 insects and 200 diseases found in Canada's forests. The leaves are broad, glossy, and light-green in color. Black Cottonwood leaves may also have an ovate shape and the leaves of mature trees may show a light rust color on the side facing the ground. No other tree approaches its stature on the grasslands that sweep five hundred miles from the ninety-eighth meridian to the foot of the Rockies. Below: 1st photo - the upper branches which have smoother gray-ish white bark. Text and photos are by G. D. Bebeau unless otherwise credited. The third subspecies, subsp. The Plains cottonwood is also the largest broadleaf tree of Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. The example in the 1st photo has multiple trunks branching close to the base and is squeezed around a shorter Black Willow on the right side. Some species of cottonwood trees have been known to reach heights of 100 ft. (30 m) or more. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. It has long been prized in the Great Plains where it … The largest known specimen in Minnesota (2020) is in Chippewa County - height 106 feet, crown spread 110 feet, circumference 394 inches. This tree should not be planted near wells and underground water pipes. wislizeni or Rio Grande Cottonwood, is native to 7 states of the southern Rocky Mountains. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwalder – plains cottonwood Fall color is a brilliant yellow. Images not to scale. Photo by madpoet_one/Flickr (Noncommercial Use Permitted with Attribution). A selection of Plains Cottonwood with a straight central leader and a pyramidal habit that matures to a broad rounded form. The subspecies recognized as the native to Minnesota is subsp. P. deltoides is strongly heterophyllous, that is, it has two types of leaves - those that are formed in the winter bud for early spring growth, known as preformed or early leaves and leaves produced later in the season known as neoformed leaves. Uses: Cottonwood wood is light, soft and weak but has a uniform texture so it is used in plywood, paper pulp, and lumber for uses not requiring bending or compression strength. In Canada the range is from British Columbia east to Ontario. 2nd photo - The female seed capsules splitting to release seeds to the wind. Over-wintering buds have fine hair. The root system is wide and branching and deeply penetrating to find moisture. Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. 2nd photo - For a comparison, this is the very similar looking leaf of the Rio Grande Cottonwood, P. deltoides subsp. The area that had been accidentally dug up by the excavator had really nicely established cottonwood and aspen on it. Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall – eastern cottonwood Subspecies: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall ssp. 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